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Write-up: shortness of breath, chest xray with pulmonary edema, periorbital edema Narrative: 73 yo M w/ PMH HTN, HLD, EVAR (2013) for AAA c/b persistent type II endoleak s/p multilple repairs (2015 & 2017) c/b glue embolization down into the R CIA secured with additional stent placement with the R iliac limb, s/p b/l Iliac artery aneurysm stent 08/31/20, and PTSD. Former smoker, quit 12+ yrs ago. 11/1/20-11/6/20: Hospitalized for acute on chronic back pain, found to multiple hypermetabolic lesions in the axial skeleton. Diagnosed with epithelioid angiosarcoma. Patient discharged to facility. 12/17/20: Patient received his 1st COVID-19 vaccine w/o complications at facility. 12/21/20: Underwent cyberknife treatment. 12/31/20: Transferred from facility to ER for new O2 requirement, SOB, cough, chest X ray / pulm edema, tachycardic and new periorbital edema. 12/31/20: Admitted to ICU before transfer to acute care. 1/1/21: Pulmonary consult, "Labs are notable for progressive left shift with bandemia, markedly elevated inflammatory markers (D-dimer, ESR, CRP, ferritin, LDH), mild elevation in procalcitonin, mild elevation in lactate that has improved, and negative viral panel including COVID-19 x2. CT chest is notable for b/l GGOs along with some interstitial infiltrates with an upper and particularly mid zone and perihilar predominance, septal thickening and crazy paving, and numerous cystic lesions or pneumatoceles. There is a lack of lobar consolidation and pulmonary nodules. Of note, PET/CT about 2 months ago only demonstrated some mild to moderate emphysema mostly in the upper lobes. Therefore, there has been a relatively dramatic change in a few months, suggesting a more subacute process, rather than an acute infectious process such as a viral pneumonia, including COVID-19 infection, in which the GGOs tend to be subpleural and peripheral. Overall, our suspicion for COVID-19 is relatively low, with negative testing x2 yesterday, negative testing a few weeks ago, and lack of sick contacts, but it is possible. Therefore, higher on the differential is a more subacute infection or chemotherapy-induced pneumonitis. Risk factors include malignancy, chemotherapy, and use of steroids (equivalence of about 27 mg of Prednisone in the form of Dexamethasone since 11/6/20 without PJP prophylaxis). These risk factors, along with consistent imaging and elevated LDH, make PJP quite likely. Fungal infection is less likely based on imaging. Chemotherapy-induced pneumonitis is a possibility, especially given the more subacute picture based on imaging. Both Gemcitabine and Docetaxel can cause pneumonitis. However, the patient has been on steroids, which is used to treat drug-induced pneumonitis, although this does not exclude it completely." 1/2/21: Transferred to ICU for worsening hypoxemia as patient reached 40L/100% FIO2 and remained on COVID isolation/COVID patient under investigation per ID recommendation. 1/4/21: Isolation precautions discontinued due to lower suspicion for active COVID infection to explain current presentation 1/6/21: Went into atrial fibrillation w/o RVR overnight 1/6. Tolerating, with MAPs in low 60s and HR in high 90s/low 100s. Suspect due to being-1L yesterday from diuresis, lasix stopped. S/p amiodarone bolus + drip, albumin 5% bolus 1/5/21: Macrocytic anemia NOS w/ slowly worsening H/H s/p PRBC x 1 unit 1/7/21: Per ICU Life-sustaining treatment note, "Following discussion w/ patient that his lung dx has been refractory to txt and hasn''t improved despite maximal therapy, patient agreed to transition to hospice after he settles affairs. " 1/7/21 Infectious Disease note: "This is an immunocompromised host due to cancer on active chemotherapy (albeit ANC$g4000 on admission) and notably had been on daily PO dexamethasone 1 mg TID (total daily dose 3 mg, equivalent to 20 mg PO prednisone) since 11/6/20 without any PJP ppx. There was elevated c/f COVID-19 infection in setting of patient''s presenting symptoms, especially in conjunction with b/l GGOs on imaging. Has undergone multiple COVID test that have all resulted negative. Discussed radiographic findings with radiology colleagues, and overall, it is difficult to definitively narrow the differential with imaging alone, but overall density of GGOs seem to appear less likely PJP and more in line with chemical pneumonitis vs COVID, although less typical for viral pneumonia as well. Given false-negative COVID tests are not unheard of, especially in the immunocompromised population, patient was kept on isolation precautions as a PUI for abundance of caution. He is now off precautions. In setting of patient having been on prednisone for some time without PJP ppx, he was also started on treatment dose TMP/SMX. Beta-d-glucan has returned positive, and although not the ideal test for PJP, this can certainly support a potential dx of PJP. Unfortunately, DFA from sputum was not performed due to insufficient sample and currently the patient is unable to produce an additional sample for testing. He is tolerating the high-dose TMP/SMX; we adjusted the dose to three SS tablets TID based on his somewhat declining UOP. Other fungal etiologies are pending work-up as well. Lastly, patient''s chemotherapy is known to cause pneumonitis, but per pulmonology team, he receives prophylactic dexamethasone with his chemo cycles that should help to prevent drug-induced pneumonitis. Remains on the differential for now and this should also be concurrently treated with the steroids he is receiving." 1/10/21: Comfort care initiated. All non-comfort measures were discontinued. Time of death: Jan 10,2021@14:56; immediate cause of death per death note is "hypoxic respiratory failure"
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